In this respect, in principle, validity of one or another theoretical model can be tested through measurements of the intensity scintillation variance 2 σI r and independent calculation of the factor 2 F(,, ,,)ClLzhn 00 in Eq. (2). Nevertheless, such an approach requires knowledge of the propagation path and turbulence characteristics the ...

Wsl2 ssh serverSimilarly, applied versions of the Fama–French plus Carhart momentum model include five factors—or at least four and a half. In our study, we use cross-sectional Fama–MacBeth regressions, with several econometric enhancements now used in industry, on essentially all US common stocks for the last half century (1963–2012).

To this end we used three popular valuation models fre- quently used in ﬁnance: the Captial Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), the Fama French 3 Factor Model, and the Fama French (Carhart) 4 Factor Model. CAPM is a very popular (albeit controversial) model in in- vestment markets and project evaluations.